Secrecy and informal organisation produce, sustain, and reinforce feelings of loyalty within intelligence and security services. This article demonstrates that loyalty is needed for cooperation between intelligence partners as well as within and between services. Under many circumstances, loyalty plays a larger role in the level of internal and external collaboration than formal work processes along hierarchical lines. These findings are empirically based on the case study of Anglo‒Dutch intelligence cooperation during World War II.
The West currently faces a number of actors who employ a wide range of measures to influence, coerce, intimidate, or undermine its interests. Many of these measures are often collectively referred to as “political warfare”, a term originally coined by former U.S. State Department diplomat George F. Kennan in 1948. This report defines political warfare as the intentional use of one or more of the traditional implements of national power (diplomatic, informational, military, and economic) to affect the political composition or decision-making within another state.
The book, Stepping Stones to Freedom: Help to Allied Airmen in The Netherlands During World War II, by Professor Bob de Graaff was originally published in Dutch as Schakels naar de vrijheid by SDU Publishers in The Hague in 1995 in cooperation with “The Escape” organization, a group made up of WWII helpers of downed Allied airmen. Members of “The Escape” felt so strongly about its historical contents that they gathered financial support to have it translated and printed in English for members of the Air Forces Escape and E
The Netherlands Intelligence Studies Association (NISA) is an independent study association established in 1991. The aim of the association is to promote academic research and education in the Netherlands with regard to the development, task and organization and working methods of governmental and private institutions involved in intelligence, counterintelligence, security and related past activities, the present and the future.